Author: Danit Parker

Danit Parker

B.Sc. In genetics and biotechnology Research assistant at Plant Protection department Learning the diseases causal agents and insects of the agricultural crops grown in the Arava region and development of control means. Biological Control.

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Recent Publications
  • 12
    years
    ago
    Using the zoophytophagous plant bug, Nesidiocoris tenuis, for the control of Tuta absoluta in tomato: Its direct effects on the plants and their yield and its control efficacy
    Plant Protection

    אורגני; הגה"צ; ירקות

    תאריך עדכון 14/3/2012

    Using the zoophytophagous plant bug, Nesidiocoris tenuis, for the control of Tuta absoluta in tomato: Its direct effects on the plants and their yield and its control efficacy
    Danit Parker, Ela Yosel, Shimon Pivonia, Rachel Levite – Central and Northern Arava Research and Development
    Arnon Allush and Shimon Shtainberg – Bio-Bee.
    E-mail address for correspondence: shimonp@arava.co.il

    Abstract
    Tuta absoluta is a new pest in Israel that causes a great deal of damage to different crops, especially tomato. In the U.S., T. absoluta is considered a quarantine pest. This species is a member of the Order Lepidoptera and the Family Gelechiidae. After the larvae of this species emerge, they burrow through leaves to fruit and stems, forming characteristic tunnels and trenches. Sometimes the larvae will penetrate the stems and tips of the canopy, strangling these tips and causing them to wither. The adult of the species is about 10 mm long. The control measures and materials available for use against this insect are not sufficient, especially those that can be used in organic agricultural systems, for which the number of permitted products is extremely limited. In response to the recent spread of this species throughout the Mediterranean basin, intensive studies have been conducted in many areas with the goal of developing ways to cope with this problem. One area of this research is the development of an integrated management system involving the local natural predator Nesidiocris tenius, which is particularly suited to tomato. N. tenius is a member of the Order Hemiptera and the Family Miridae. The adults of this omnivorous species can feed on animals or plants. N. tenius feeds on eggs and first-stage larvae of the T. absoluta moth and, therefore, holds potential for use as a biological control agent against this species. When this insect subsists on a plant diet, it sucks the sap from leaves, stems and young fruit, creating bands of dead tissue that can lead to the desiccation and eventual shedding of leaves and fruit.
    In an experiment conducted at the Yair Experimental Station during the 2010/11 season, we examined the efficacy of N. tenuis against the moth T. absoluta, evaluated the level and character of the damage N. tenuis caused to tomatoes in the greenhouse and compared the biological-control efficacy of this insect with the amount of damage it caused to the tomato crop. The experiment was conducted using tomato line 1402 (Hazera). At the beginning of the season, T. absoluta was not present in the tunnels we were using for the experiment and we focused on evaluating the level of direct damage caused to the tomato plants by N. tenius. We evaluated three treatments with different levels of N. tenius: unregulated, regulated and a N. tenius -free control. When T. absoluta appeared in the tunnels, we examined the effects of the treatments listed above on the level of damage T. absoluta was able to inflict on the tomato plants and their yield.
    The regulated N. tenius treatment included chemical intervention each time there were more than five individuals per stem meristem. It was very difficult to control the N. tenius population using the chemicals labeled for use in organic agriculture. We found that the N. tenius caused a lot of leaf damage, but did not negatively affect yield over the winter or through April. Later on, there could have been a certain amount of damage related to the dramatic increase in the N. tenius populations. Next season, we will also examine the effect of N. tenius on the quality of cluster tomatoes in addition to its effects on tomatoes that produce individual fruits (as we examined this year). It is possible that the damage to the main stem caused by N. tenius will negatively affect the crop. After T. absoluta appeared in the tunnels in March, we found less T. absoluta-inflicted damage in the leaves and fruit in the N. tenius treatments than in the control. The lowest level of T. absoluta damage was observed in the regulated N. tenius treatment. This is apparently due to the fact that the product that was used to control N. tenius in this treatment (Tracer; spinosad) also controls T. absoluta. Experiments with N. tenius and the evaluation of its efficacy against T. absoluta in organic crops will continue in the coming season.

    שפה English
    מחבר Danit Parker, Ela Yosel, Shimon Pivonia, Rachel Levite, Arnon Allush, Shimon Shtainberg
    שנה 2011
    שייכות yzvieli
    תאריך יצירה 14/3/2012
    תאריך עדכון 14/3/2012

  • 12
    years
    ago
    Control of broad mites and powdery mildew in organically grown pepper in the Arava
    Vegetables, Plant Protection

    8
    תחום או ענף אורגני; ירקות

    תאריך עדכון 14/3/2012

    Control of broad mites and powdery mildew in organically grown pepper in the Arava
    Danit Parker, Ela Yosel, Rachel Levite and Shimon Pivonia – Central and Northern Arava Research and Development
    E-mail address for correspondence: shimonp@arava.co.il

    Abstract
    Broad mite (Polyphagotasnemus latus) is a serious pest of many agricultural crops, including pepper. Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) is a multi-host pathogen of agricultural crops, particularly pepper. To date, aside from treatment with sulfur, which is permitted in organic crops and requires large-scale treatment, there are hardly any effective options for controlling broad mite and powdery mildew in pepper. Due to concern over the accelerated deterioration of screens following the use of sulfur as well as residue on the fruit, organic growers are searching for additional chemical preparations to effectively control broad mite and powdery mildew.
    In an experiment conducted during the 2010/11 season at the Yair Experimental Station, we examined the efficacy of E.O.S., a preparation that contains 99% mineral oil, for the control of broad mites and powdery mildew in organic pepper. We found that spraying E.O.S. once every two weeks did not effectively prevent damage caused by broad mites and powdery mildew. In contrast, the spraying of a liquid colloid of sulfur did effectively control this damage. It is possible that more frequent application of E.O.S. might lead to better results.

    Acknowledgements
    We would like to thank Yuval Barzilai, Dorit Hashmonai and Avi Osherovitz from the Yair Experimental Station for their help setting up and carrying out the experiment.

    שפה English
    KEYWORDS Polyphagotasnemus latus, Leveillula taurica, Capsicum
    AUTHORS Danit Parker, Ela Yosel, Rachel Levite and Shimon Pivonia
    שנה 2011
    שייכות yzvieli
    תאריך יצירה 14/3/2012
    תאריך עדכון 14/3/2012

  • 13
    years
    ago
    Establishment of the predatory mite Euseius scutalis in pepper and its potential for use in the control of broad mites
    Plant Protection, Vegetables

    תחום או ענף אורגני; הגה"צ; ירקות

    תאריך עדכון 1/10/2011

    תיאור מלא Establishment of the predatory mite Euseius scutalis in pepper and its potential for use in the control of broad mites

    Danit Parker, Shimon Pivonia - Arava Research and Development.
    Shimon Shtainberg, Arnon Alush, Avner Hess - Bio Bee

    Email for correspondence: ShimonP@arava.co.il

    Broad mite (Polyphagotasnemus latus) is a serious pest in many agricultural crops, including pepper. From transplanting through flowering, there is no biological control agent that can be used against broad mite that can survive on the plant and, aside from sulfur, which may be used in organic crops and which requires a large-scale treatment, there is no other solution for the control of this pest. Sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci gennadius) is another agricultural pest. This insect is a serious, multi-host pest that affects a number of crops, including pepper. To date, a number of biological control agents have been tested for use against sweet potato whitefly, including the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii, which is used as a biological control agent against thrips, sweet potato whitefly and even, to a limited extent, against red mites. This mite is a member of the Phytosediidae family, which includes many species of predatory mites, including Euseius scutalis. In contrast to the predatory mite A. swirskii, which is naturally found on the coastal plain, the E. scutalis mite is naturally found in the Arava. This is an advantage in terms of adapting this species to the local climate.
    In experiments that were carried out during the 2009/10 season at the Yair Research Station, we examined the efficacy of the predatory mite E. scutalis as a biological control agent for use against broad mite in pepper and examined its ability to establish itself from the transplanting phase through flowering with the aid of weekly applications of pollen. We also compared the abilities of the predatory mites E. scutalis and A. swirskii to control sweet potato whitefly.
    The mite E. scutalis was able to control broad mite. When this mite is distributed at transplanting in situations in which sweet potato whitefly is not already present inside the net-house or other cropping structure (as is generally the case in plots covered with 50-mesh netting), there is a concern for the diet of the predatory mite that necessitates the application of pollen, so that the mite can survive until flowering or the appearance of insects that it can eat. Weekly spraying of the plants with pollen preserves a minimal population of the predatory mite inside the cropping structure. Without these pollen sprays, the mite will disappear until flowers appear. The results of our second experiment only hint to the potential of E. scutalis as a means of controlling sweet potato whitefly.
    In the coming years, we will continue to evaluate the use of E. scutalis for the biological control of broad mite in pepper, from transplanting through flowering and onward. We will also evaluate its potential for use against sweet potato whitefly and examine the reciprocal relationship between this mite and Orius fleas. This flea may be responsible for the disappearance of this mite during the winter, as was observed in the present study.

    שפה English
    מחבר Danit Parker, Shimon Pivonia, Shimon Shtainberg, Arnon Alush, Avner Hess
    שנה 2010
    שייכות yzvieli
    תאריך יצירה 1/10/2011
    תאריך עדכון 14/3/2012

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